There are various alternative methods of communication for deaf people besides lipreading and sign language.
Cued Speech is a phonetic system which uses eight handshapes in four different positions in combination with the natural lip-patterns of speech. It is more often used with young deaf children, but is sometimes used with deafened adults. It can allow experienced users to gain up to 96% of what is being said rather than the 30-40% when using lipreading alone.
For more information on Cued Speech see the following websites:
b. Paget-Gorman signed speech
This is a manually coded form of the English language, designed to be used with people with speech or communication difficulties. It has a limited vocabulary and is not based on the signs used in the deaf community.
Makaton is a system of communication that uses a vocabulary of manual signs and gestures and graphic symbols to support speech. It is mostly used with children, but is sometimes used with adults.
For more information on Makaton see the website: